• In 2016, NIB’s operations exceeded expectations in terms of lending volumes and financial results.
  • The Bank’s operations focused on implementing the areas of activity that the Board identified in the latest strategy review. The Bank increased lending to SMEs and mid-sized corporates, and launched the Arctic Financing Facility.
  • As a new initiative, NIB started purchasing green bonds issued by companies or municipalities in the member countries. The purpose of this new product is to finance environmental projects and to support the green bond market.
  • Loans provided to projects achieving a “good” or “excellent” mandate rating for improving competitiveness and the environment accounted for 96% of the total amount of lending, excluding investments in green bonds.
  • In 2016, long-term loans to projects with a “good” or “excellent” mandate rating on their environmental impact amounted to an all-time high of EUR 1,567 million, or 37% of agreed loans. These loans were provided, to a large extent, for projects aimed at improving wastewater treatment and water supply in the member countries.
  • Loans aimed at improving competitiveness mainly supported investments in R&D, infrastructure and energy.
  • In order to identify areas of improvement in project implementation, NIB launched ex-post mandate assessments of financed projects.
  • NIB’s volume of loans agreed grew markedly. The Bank signed 58 loan agreements and invested in eight green bonds with a combined value of EUR 4,363 million. Financing long-term investments in public infrastructure was one of the principal drivers of this development.
  • Disbursements of loans also saw a significant increase to an all-time high of EUR 3,373 million.
  • The profit was EUR 212 million (2015: EUR 215 million).
  • NIB raised an all-time high of EUR 6.7 billion in new funding and continued to issue NIB Environmental Bonds.

Operating environment

The global and Nordic–Baltic economies grew by 3% and 2%, respectively, in 2016—a very similar pace as in the previous year. However, within the region, the developments continued to vary between the countries. While the strong growth of the Swedish economy has slowed somewhat, in Finland, the economy showed signs of improvement. The decline in oil investment is still damping activity in Norway, and weak global demand for exports has kept the economy in low gear in Denmark. The Icelandic economy is showing strong growth, with early signs of overheating. The Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian economies ended the year on a good note, and this positive momentum is expected to carry over into 2017.

Despite favourable financing conditions, corporate investment activity and related demand for long-term loans remained subdued. Loans to non-financial corporations in the four main Nordic markets grew by an average of 3.7% in 2016. Meanwhile, the demand from the public sector for long-term loans to finance infrastructure investments grew strongly, and margins also compressed further. Corporate spreads for euro area BBB-rated companies ended 2016 about 30–50 basis points lower than at the end of 2015.

Lending activities

NIB’s lending activities saw continued strong development in 2016, with new lending volume reaching an all-time high. In particular, demand for long-term financing from municipalities in the member countries increased substantially. The Bank signed 58 loan agreements and invested in eight green bonds with an aggregate value of EUR 4,363 million (out of which EUR 143 million were invested in green bonds). Disbursements of loans also saw a significant increase to an all-time high of EUR 3,373 million, compared to EUR 2,716 million in 2015. More than half of the new loans were extended to new borrowers. Lending volumes by business sector are displayed in the table below.

Loans agreed


Loans agreed

Following the review of NIB’s strategy performed a year earlier, the core business model of the Bank remains intact. NIB continues to fulfil its mission to finance investments that improve competitiveness and the environment in the region. However, it was decided that within this mission, NIB will develop its lending activities in order to increase its impact.

One focus area is to increase lending to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in cooperation with financial intermediaries, as well as to mid-sized corporates. These activities have been initiated, and NIB’s offering is being broadened with new lending products, for example through risk-sharing mechanisms. NIB’s aim is to complement other sources of financing and to stand ready to respond to demand. Alongside these new initiatives, the Bank continues its traditional lending through local banks and other financial intermediary institutions.

A further aim based on the review is to increase NIB’s lending activities in non-member countries to approximately one fifth of the total amount of annual new lending. The purpose of these activities is to support the Bank’s clients by financing investments outside the Nordic–Baltic region. NIB has enhanced its outreach activities directed towards the member country business community and its partners among regional financial institutions. As a result, the project pipeline is developing and the first transaction was concluded. The Bank also completed a review of its China lending programme.

The strategic focus on projects in the Arctic region is being implemented within the framework of the EUR 500 million Arctic Financing Facility. This activity had a good start in 2016, with several loans approved and four deals signed.

Another prioritised activity is financing investments in the Baltic countries. During the year, NIB was actively sourcing deals in this region and building a good pipeline, which is expected to materialise in 2017.

LENDING (in EUR million, unless otherwise specified) 2016 2015 2014
Loans agreed, including green bond investments, according to business areas:      
Energy and environment 1,534 710 630
Infrastructure, transportation and telecom 1,198 823 557
Industries and services 912 996 926
Financial institutions and SMEs 720 301 277
Loans agreed, including green bond investments, total 4,363 2,830 2,389
Loans disbursed, total 3,373 2,716 2,274
Number of loan agreements, including green bond investments, total 66 45 45
Repayments/prepayments 2,471 2,351 2,005
Loans outstanding and guarantees 16,640 15,627 15,156
Member countries 14,831 13,347 12,705
Non-member countries 1,851 2,341 2,506
Collective impairments -42 -61 -55

Mission fulfillment*

Projects financed by the Bank are expected to contribute to the Bank’s mission to improve competitiveness and the environment of the Nordic–Baltic countries. Before approval is given in each individual case, all eligible investments are scrutinised and rated against the criteria developed on the basis of the Bank’s mission. In 2016, loans achieving a “good” or “excellent” mandate rating accounted for 96% of the total amount of loans agreed. Some 37% of the new lending is classified as environmental.

In 2016, NIB started a procedure of performing ex-post mandate assessments of financed projects. The Bank will continue to keep systematic records of how well the expected mandate contribution was achieved. The first cases of completed ex-post mandate assessments were presented to the Board during the year.

Mandate rating

% of loans agreed, excluding
Lending Green Bond purchases

Mandate rating

* NIB buying green bonds is classified as lending. The data provided in the sections “Mission fulfilment”, “Competitiveness impact” and “Environmental impact” are calculated on the basis of the total amount of loans agreed that do not include investments in green bonds. The reason is that the mandate rating, which is required for regular lending, does not apply to green bond investments due to the nature of bond transactions. NIB defines loans with “good” or “excellent” environmental mandate as environmental loans.

Competitiveness impact

In 2016, the largest part (27%) of NIB’s lending was extended for investment projects in member country municipalities, typically regional growth centres that are attracting new population and experiencing rising pressure on their public infrastructure. These projects will improve key infrastructure services in education, public transport, and water supply and wastewater treatment. These investments will have long-term impacts on the growth potential and business environment in the whole Nordic–Baltic region.

The Bank continued financing investments by energy utilities in energy production and networks. An effective and sustainable energy system is a cornerstone of long-term competitiveness. The utilities in Norway mainly invested in electricity networks and rolled out automated metering systems to improve the management of the distribution network and to facilitate the development of smart grids. NIB also financed several heat and power production facilities fuelled with local biomass in Finland and Sweden, and a geothermal project in Iceland. Energy sector projects accounted for 18% of the total loans agreed.

NIB extended loans to support research and development activities in several member countries. Innovations add value to companies’ product offerings and have spill-over effects on other companies in the member area business clusters and regions. Loans to finance R&D accounted for 14% of NIB’s lending.

In line with NIB’s strategy to reach out to smaller member area companies, NIB increased its lending to financial intermediaries. Loan programmes for SMEs and non-member country counterparts reached 12% of NIB’s total lending in 2016. The 50% annual increase in NIB-funded loan programmes for small and medium-sized companies will improve the capacity of such companies to grow and innovate.

Environmental impact

NIB’s major environmental impact comes through its traditional long-term lending. Since 2011, NIB has also raised funds for its environmental lending through issuing green bonds. Last year, this was complemented when NIB started to buy green bonds issued by companies and municipalities in the member countries. NIB is actively participating in setting standards for green financing.

In 2016, long-term loans for projects with a “good” or “excellent” mandate rating on their environmental impact amounted to an all-time high of EUR 1,567 million, or 37% of agreed loans.

Environmental loans

(of loans agreed, excluding Lending Green Bonds)

Environmental loans

In particular, the Bank financed eight wastewater treatment projects in Sweden and Norway for a total of EUR 683 million, which was a markedly larger amount than in any of the previous years. Several wastewater treatment projects included biogas utilisation of the sludge and thus contributed to climate change mitigation.

Public transport projects with a climate change mitigation effect received a total of EUR 390 million in loans from NIB. Loans for biomass-fired power plants and hydropower investments in Sweden, Finland and Norway amounted to EUR 378 million.

The energy projects that the Bank financed in 2016 are expected to add 1.5 TWh annually to renewable energy generation. NIB estimates that the loans agreed during the year have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by 280,000 tonnes annually, prorated to NIB’s share of the financing.

With a framework of EUR 500 million, NIB launched a new lending product for investing in green bonds issued by companies or municipalities in the member countries. The purpose of the new approach is to support the development of the green bond market, finance environmental investments and promote good standards. In 2016, NIB invested in eight bond transactions, which exceeded expectations. At year-end, the Bank held EUR 143 million in green bonds.

As an active promoter of the green bond market, NIB was elected as a member of the Executive Committee of the Green Bond Principles, an international group of issuers, investors and intermediaries in the green bond market. NIB was also appointed by the European Commission as an observer to the High-Level Expert Group on sustainable finance.

NIB’s Sustainability Policy and Guidelines cover the environmental, social and ethical aspects of the Bank’s operations. More detailed information on NIB’s corporate responsibility matters are described in the Annual Report 2016, specifically under “GRI reporting”, available online (click here).

Treasury activities

In 2016, NIB’s funding amounted to EUR 6.7 billion, which was the largest amount NIB has ever raised in one year. Altogether, the Bank issued 58 bonds. At year-end, outstanding debt totalled EUR 24 billion in 18 currencies.

In 2016, NIB issued three USD-denominated global benchmark transactions and maintained its position as a leading USD benchmark issuer. The overall funding costs from the programme are deemed to be attractive and to contribute positively to NIB’s business model.

The Bank continued the NIB Environmental Bond (NEB) programme targeting sustainability-conscious investors. In this segment, NIB also continued to develop well, issuing a record-high number of environmental bonds, totalling EUR 763 million, in three transactions. An eight-year, EUR 500 million Environmental Bond benchmark was issued in June, and bonds in Swedish kronor in January and September. The proceeds from the Environmental Bond issues are used to finance projects with a positive impact on the environment.

NIB’s investor base continued to be global and diversified. Of all investors that NIB’s bond issues attracted during the year, only 14% were from the Bank’s member countries; given that the Bank lent almost exclusively within its member countries, this means that NIB continued to draw funds into the Nordic–Baltic region. Of the investors, 44% were from Europe (excluding the member countries) and investors from the Americas accounted for 20%, while investors based in Asia bought 17% of NIB’s new issuance. Investors from other regions of the world contributed 5% to NIB’s annual funding.

In 2016, the Bank gradually moved from one-way to two-way credit support agreements with its derivative counterparties. This is now the market standard and is expected to decrease the cost of derivative contracts for the Bank. It also requires a higher liquidity buffer to mitigate the need for the Bank to post collateral with swap counterparties.

Risk management

The Bank’s overall risk position remained strong, with high asset quality, solid liquidity and strong capitalisation.

The credit quality of the lending exposure was stable, with 85% of the exposure placed in investment-grade categories (risk classes 1–10; it was 83% at year-end 2015). The exposure in the best risk classes (1–2) increased, mainly due to growth in lending to the public sector. This reflects the Bank’s response to the demand for financing from this sector in the Bank’s member countries. In terms of geographical distribution, lending exposure in Norway and Sweden increased the most.

The Treasury portfolio continued to be of high credit quality, with close to 100% of the exposure in the investment-grade categories (risk classes 1–10).

In terms of market risk, the Bank is mainly exposed to interest rate risk, credit spread risk and cross currency basis risk in treasury operations. Market risk is monitored with sensitivity-based measures and managed within strict limits. The Bank’s overall market risk remained almost unchanged compared to the previous year. At the end of the year, the Bank’s liquidity buffer amounted to EUR 11,097 million. The survival horizon measured according to the Bank’s liquidity policy was 443 days, exceeding the target level of 365 days. More detailed commentary on the Bank’s risk exposures is provided in the “Risk management” section in the notes to the financial statements.

The Bank continued to strengthen its risk management in line with evolving market standards. During 2016, the Bank progressed with the development of an internal capital adequacy assessment process and started the development of a methodology for expected credit loss calculation in accordance with the new IFRS 9 standard. Risk management reporting was also further improved during the year.

In early 2016, the Bank implemented the methodology developed for calculating credit valuation adjustments (CVA/DVA) for counterparty credit risk in the derivative portfolio.

Financial results

Despite the low interest rate environment, the Bank managed to maintain its financial results. NIB’s annual profit of EUR 212 million, compared to EUR 215 million in 2015, was the result of the successful advancement in lending operations, higher net profit on financial operations, and lower general administrative expenses. Net interest income deviated negatively by EUR 5 million compared with last year.

As described above, the quality of the loan portfolio remained high, and the Bank continues to adopt a conservative approach in relation to loan impairment provisions.

More detailed commentary on the Bank’s financial results can be found in the Operating and financial review.


The Board of Directors proposes to the Board of Governors that EUR 55 million be paid in dividends to the Bank’s member countries for the year 2016.


The Control Committee is the Bank’s supervisory body. It ensures that the operations of the Bank are conducted in accordance with the Statutes. The Control Committee is responsible for the audit of the Bank and submits its annual audit report to the Board of Governors. In 2016, the Control Committee for the first time appointed an independent expert, Peter Engberg Jensen, to assist on matters within its responsibility. This was done to further strengthen the competence within the Committee and to enhance its supervisory capabilities.

The Control Committee appointed Anders Tagde, Authorised Public Accountant from KPMG Sweden, as dual-signing external auditor, together with Marcus Tötterman, Authorised Public Accountant from KPMG Finland.


Two new external cases of corruption involving borrowers of the Bank were reported to the Board. These cases are currently under investigation by the Office of the Chief Compliance Officer (OCCO). In addition, in cooperation with national enforcement agencies, OCCO followed up on other cases registered in previous years.

In February 2016, the Board of Directors adopted three new policies in NIB’s anti-corruption framework: the Speaking-up and Whistleblowing Policy; the Compliance, Integrity and Anti-corruption Policy; and the Investigation and Enforcement Policy. As part of the latter policy, a Sanctions Panel was established. The panel consists of three members, including two external members, both appointed by the Board of Directors in June 2016. An appeal function and procedures were also established in line with the Investigation and Enforcement Policy.

During 2016, a comprehensive assessment of the Bank’s integrity and corruption risks was conducted. On the basis of this assessment, the Bank will improve its control and screening procedures for anti-money laundering and counteracting terrorist financing as well as integrity issues and sanctions. 

Adjustment and alignment of NIB’s authorised capital

In line with the Bank’s Statutes, NIB’s Board of Governors decided to review, adjust and align the authorised capital of the Bank according to the allocation currently in force for the authorised capital; each member country’s share, in percentage of paid-in capital and callable capital, is equal to its share of the authorised capital. This was based on a proposal from the Board of Directors. The adjustment also concerns the member countries’ statutory guarantee, where it was decided to also align each member country’s share of the guarantee for the Project Investment Loan and Environmental Investment Loan facilities in accordance with its share of the authorised capital of the Bank. The changes will enter into force as soon as the approval or ratification process is completed in all member countries in early 2017.

Chairmanship and meetings

During the year, the Board of Directors had eight ordinary meetings and one extra online meeting. Seven meetings were held in Helsinki, Finland, and one in Copenhagen, Denmark. Four meetings were chaired by Mr Pentti Pikkarainen (Finland) and the remaining four meetings by the new Chairman, Mr Kaspars Āboliņš (Latvia). Three seminars were held for the Members of the Board.

In connection with the Nordic Council session held in Copenhagen in November, NIB organised its 40th Anniversary event with external speakers: Finland’s Prime Minister, Mr Juha Sipilä, and Latvia’s Minister of Finance, Ms Dana Reizniece-Ozola, as well as Professor in the Economics of Innovation from the University of Sussex, Ms Mariana Mazzucato.

Other strategy initiatives

Implementing the strategy review completed a year earlier, NIB conducted a number of measures with the aim of “keeping the house in order”. The Bank carried out the first round of the training programme “Raising the Bar” for staff members, initiated the implementation of the comprehensive ICT project FOBORA (an integrated system for treasury front office, back office, risk management and accounting), and continued the ongoing renovation of its office building in Helsinki.


Entering 2017, economic indicators are pointing to a modest global cyclical upswing in industrial activity. In the absence of clarity, however, forecasts for economic growth globally and the Nordic–Baltic region continue to have positive indications but below full potential. Inflation and commodity prices are forecast to rise, while short-term interest rates should increase slightly in the US but remain unchanged in the euro area and most of Europe.

In this context, the long-term trend of subdued corporate investment is expected to continue. On the other hand, infrastructure investments by local and regional governments in the Nordic–Baltic countries should continue to generate demand for long-term capital.

Lower net interest income and valuation effects are expected to result in a lower profit in 2017. At the same time, the implementation of the strategic initiatives that started in 2016 will help the Bank build a healthy flow of deals in lending.